By Philip Carr
This pocket-sized alphabetical advisor introduces the diversity of phenomena studied in phonology and the most theoretical frameworks for accomplishing phonological research. The entries are a concise and transparent assessment of 1 of the most components in linguistic research.
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Extra info for A Glossary of Phonology (Glossaries in Linguistics)
Degemination A process in which a geminate segment is simplified to become non-geminate. In the English word immaterial, the prefix in- is added to the adjective material. But the word is pronounced with a nongeminate [m]: [mə təɹiəl], and not as [mmə təɹiəl], with a fake geminate. This is in contrast to words such as unnatural, where degemination does not take place; the prefix un- is added to the root natural, resulting in the pronunciation [ n n tʃəɹəl], with a fake geminate. degree of stricture The extent to which airflow is obstructed in the production of a sound.
Examples are the [p] in open, the [t] in butter and the [k] in bucket. Close approximation constitutes a less extreme degree of stricture: the articulators come into close contact, but the airflow is not completely blocked. Rather, it escapes through a small space, causing turbulence, heard as audible friction. Sounds produced this way are called fricatives. Examples are the [θ] in thin, the [f] in fin, the [s] in sin and the [ʃ] in shin. Open approximation is an even less extreme degree of stricture: the articulators do not come close enough to cause friction.
Firth also appears to have adopted the thesis that phonological objects lack intrinsic phonetic content. A GLOSSARY OF PHONOLOGY 55 Firthian Phonology see Firth flap A speech sound type in which an active articulator engages in a brief contact with a passive articulator. Several varieties of English have an alveolar flap, transcribed as [ɾ], which is rather like a short [d], or like an alveolar trill, but with only one tap of the tip/blade of the tongue against the passive articulator. During the production of [ɾ], as in Spanish pero (‘but’) or American English witty, the tongue tip/blade taps briefly against the alveolar ridge.