By Alan Cruse
This easy-to-use advisor illuminates key thoughts and phrases in semantics and pragmatics and the research of which means because it is conveyed via language.
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Additional resources for A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics (Glossaries in Linguistics)
Contextual theory of meaning see under atomistic vs holistic theories of word meaning continuous signs see under discrete vs continuous signs contradictory Two propositions are contradictory if the truth of one entails the falsity of the other, and the falsity of one entails the truth of the other. That is to say, they cannot either both be true or both false. For instance, 36 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS ‘This statement is true’ and ‘This statement is false’ are contradictory propositions.
Consider the following: Twenty-four people turned up for the meeting; A couple of dozen people turned up for the meeting. A dictionary is likely to define a dozen as ‘twelve’. But suppose twenty-three or twentyfive people turned up: the first sentence would A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS 49 be false, but the second would be true (there is a similar difference between a couple of and two). 2. , and so on; by expletives used as modifiers, as in It’s bloody cold in here; and by expressions such as to stuff oneself, as in He just sat there stuffing himself and not saying a word (compare eat a hearty meal).
Performance takes a slightly different perspective to parole, in that it refers in the first place to the processes involved in the production of utterances, rather than the produced utterances themselves. complementarity, complementaries Complementarity is a type of oppositeness. Complementary terms divide a domain into two mutually exclusive sub-domains: if something belongs to the domain, then it must fall under one or other of the terms. Complementaries have a contradictory relation. So, for example, if something is not dead it must be alive, and if it is not alive then it must be dead, and it is anomalous to say of an organism that it is neither dead nor alive.