By Alessandro Boselli
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–13):
Chapter 2 X?Ray (pages 17–23):
Chapter three UV?Optical?NIR (pages 25–40):
Chapter four The Infrared (pages 41–49):
Chapter five Millimeter and Centimeter Radio (pages 51–57):
Chapter 6 houses of the recent X?Ray Emitting gasoline (pages 61–62):
Chapter 7 airborne dirt and dust houses (pages 63–69):
Chapter eight Radio homes (pages 71–75):
Chapter nine The Spectral strength Distribution (pages 77–90):
Chapter 10 Spectral beneficial properties (pages 91–106):
Chapter eleven fuel homes (pages 107–123):
Chapter 12 dirt Extinction (pages 125–142):
Chapter thirteen superstar Formation Tracers (pages 143–159):
Chapter 14 mild Profiles and Structural Parameters (pages 161–170):
Chapter 15 Stellar and Dynamical plenty (pages 171–191):
Chapter sixteen Statistical instruments (pages 195–213):
Chapter 17 Scaling family members (pages 215–233):
Chapter 18 topic Cycle in Galaxies (pages 235–243):
Chapter 19 The function of our environment on Galaxy Evolution (pages 245–254):
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Additional info for A Panchromatic View of Galaxies
1 Continuum: Dust Emission with the grain emissivity index β 2 although this value might change with the spectral range as shown by , which gives β D 1 for 50 μm Ä λ Ä 100 μm, β D 1 2 for 100 μm Ä λ Ä 250 μm, and β D 2 for λ > 250 μm. 1 The temperature of dust grains of different sizes as a function of the mean time between absorption of photons from the general interstellar radiation ﬁeld, from . Only the largest grains (a D 200 Å) are in thermal equilibrium with the radiation and thus emit as a modiﬁed black body.
1) HII indicates fully ionized atomic hydrogen. 1 Hydrogen recombination line, wavelength (in μm) and intensity relative to Hβ for a density n e D 104 cm 3 and Te D 104 K (case B), from . 1) and on dust extinction, any hydrogen recombination line can be combined with population synthesis models to quantify the number of ionizing sources – that is, to measure the star formation activity of galaxies (see Chapter 13). 9) where n i and n e are the density of the ions responsible for the emission and the electron density respectively, d s is the line of sight through the emitting nebula, and l (T ) is the emission coefﬁcient.
Due to the relatively high velocity of the expanding shells ( 25 km s 1 ), planetary nebulae have a typical lifetime on the order of 104 yr. In supernova remnants, the excitation of the gas is due to the transfer of kinetic energy from the expanding remnant (shock excitation) to the surrounding gas (recombination and collisionally-excited emission). 5 The integrated optical spectrum of the star-forming late-type galaxy NGC 4532 (adapted from ). The strong hydrogen emission lines are due to the presence of young O and early B stars which ionize the gas within HII regions, while the oxygen and sulfur lines are due to metals produced and injected into the interstellar medium by massive stars.