By Dan O'Hair, Hannah Rubenstein, Rob Stewart
This best-selling short advent to public conversing deals sensible insurance of each subject more often than not lined in a full-sized textual content, from invention, study, and association, to perform and supply. Its concise, reasonably cheap layout makes it ideal for the general public talking direction, and any environment around the curriculum, at the task, or locally. The fourth version deals even more advantageous insurance of the basics of speechmaking, whereas additionally addressing the altering realities of public talking in a electronic international, with a brand new bankruptcy on on-line shows, and new instruments and suggestion for locating and comparing on-line resources.
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Additional resources for A Pocket Guide to Public Speaking
Relate the topic to familiar issues and ideas about which they already hold positive attitudes. If listeners know relatively little about the topic, • Stick to the basics and include background information. • Steer clear of jargon, and define unclear terms. • Repeat important points, summarizing information often. 6 • Analyzing the Audience 39 If listeners are negatively disposed toward the topic, • Focus on establishing rapport and credibility. • Don’t directly challenge listeners’ attitudes; instead begin with areas of agreement.
While a paraphrase contains approximately the same number of words as the original source material stated in the speaker’s own words, a summary condenses the same material, distilling only its essence. 28 1 • GETTING STARTED Note how a speaker could paraphrase and summarize, with credit, the following excerpt from an article titled “The Age of Nutritionism” by Nir Rosen, published January 28, 2007, in the New York Times Magazine: ORIGINAL VERSION: It was in the 1980s that food began disappearing from the American supermarket, gradually to be replaced by “nutrients,” which are not the same thing.
Briefly summarize your topic and informational needs. • State a (reasonable) goal, such as what you would like to accomplish in the interview, and reach agreement on it. • Establish a time limit for the interview and stick to it. Pose substantive questions. Listen to what the subject is saying, not just to what you want to hear. Strive to use the active listening strategies described in Chapter 5: • Don’t break in when the subject is speaking or interject with leading comments. • Paraphrase the interviewee’s answers when appropriate in order to establish understanding.