By Menzies, Bruce Keith; Ng, C. W. W.; Simons, N. E
CD contains pupil versions of the OASYS software program applications 'FREW' and 'Safe'.
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Additional resources for A short course in soil-structure engineering of deep foundations, excavations and tunnels
Used with permission So how do igneous rocks differ from one another? This can be summarised as follows: By grain size and texture: . Rate of cooling controls grain size . Slow cooling gives coarse-grained rocks . Rapid cooling gives fine-grained and glassy rocks. By mineral and chemical content: . High silica (Si) content sufficient for quartz to occur within the rock (acid and felsic) . Low silica content insufficient for quartz to occur. g. pyroxene and amphiboles). 31 Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.
CHAPTER 2 NEW GROUND: IGNEOUS ROCKS . What igneous rocks look like – here the focus is on how these rocks are classified and how to identify/name the key varieties. Where would the civil engineer expect to find igneous rocks? Origins of magma Overview Most magmas originate in the upper mantle by partial melting of rocks. The processes that cause partial melting are: . . pressure-release melting flux melting increase in temperature (associated with hot spots) magma migration and magma rise. Pressure-release melting Along divergent plate boundaries the two plates pull away from each other.
Igneous rocks begin as molten material often emanating from deep in the Earth’s crust. This molten rock is called ‘magma’ when within the Earth’s crust but called lava when it reaches the ground surface. As the molten rock cools and solidifies, crystals form and these crystals are the minerals that will make up the final rock. Looking at a thin section of rock reveals these minerals represented by different colours (Fig. 14). Minerals in their crystallised form are fused together, leaving no voids, showing that the 18 Copyright © ICE Publishing, all rights reserved.