By Chin-hue Lee, Haizhou Li, Lin-shan Lee, Ren-hua Wang, Qiang Huo
After a long time of analysis task, chinese language spoken language processing (CSLP) has complex significantly either in useful know-how and theoretical discovery. during this e-book, the editors offer either an advent to the sphere in addition to particular study issues of their options in numerous components of CSLP. The contributions characterize pioneering efforts starting from CSLP rules to applied sciences and functions, with every one bankruptcy encapsulating a unmarried challenge and its suggestions.
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Extra info for Advances in Chinese Spoken Language Processing
Since speech is not narrowband, the ZCR corresponds to the average frequency of primary power concentration. Thus high and low ZCR (about 4,900 and 1,400 crossings/sec) correspond to unvoiced and voiced speech, respectively. 3. Short-Time Autocorrelation Function Another way to estimate certain useful features of a speech signal concerns the short-time autocorrelation function. Like the ZCR, it serves as a tool to access Speech Analysis: The Production-Perception Perspective 21 some spectral characteristics of speech without explicit spectral transformations.
Phonemes are spoken-language specific. Table 3 shows the three bilabial plosives in three different spoken languages. It has been mentioned that /p h / and /b/ are phonemes in English. In Mandarin, however, /p/ and / p h / are phonemes. Taiwanese has all the three phones as phonemes because there exists all the minimal pairs in Taiwanese (three different words with identical pronunciation except for the plosive consonant). Table 3. Three bilabial plosives form different phoneme sets in different spoken languages.
PLP has often been combined with the RASTA (RelAtive SpecTrAl) method of speech analysis. RASTA bandpasses spectral parameter signals to eliminate steady or slowly-varying components in the speech signal (including environmental effects and speaker characteristics) and rapid noise events. The bandpass range is typically 1-10 Hz, with a sharp zero at 0 Hz and a timeconstant of about 160 ms. , most channel effects, except in severe fading conditions) are thus eliminated by the highpass filtering.