By Saartje Verbeke
The publication presents an summary of the alignment styles present in smooth Indo-Aryan languages. The research of the styles of case marking and contract results in a balanced view at the idea of ergativity and evaluates its price for typological linguistics. The e-book bargains an intensive dialogue of prior methods to ergativity. It analyzes 4 Indo-Aryan languages - Asamiya, Nepali, Rajasthani and Kashmiri - at the foundation of textual content corpora. Examples from different Indo-Aryan languages also are adduced. The publication is a radical synchronic research of alignment styles in Indo-Aryan languages.
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Extra info for Alignment and Ergativity in New Indo-Aryan Languages
In most languages with DOM, O is either unmarked or marked. This varying markedness of O has been attributed to the influence of the features of the referential hierarchies. The semantic criteria determining the marking of O are usually definiteness and/or animacy, but the topicality level of O can also have an influence (Bossong 1983; Lazard 2001). Ergativity from a functional and typological perspective 37 An O-argument with features from the left side of the referential hierarchy should be marked because these arguments are the least likely to function as patients.
The core arguments in a clause also have semantic functions. For instance, der Mann in ex. (2) and (3) fulfils the semantic function of the agent of the action expressed in the clause, whereas den Jungen in the second sentence is the patient. Agent and patient are “semantic roles”, which are typically assumed by core arguments. Because they rely on semantics, semantic roles can be cross-linguistically distinguished in a fairly straightforward manner. For instance, every language can express an agent that performs an action.
The nominative and absolutive cases are both unmarked. The only apparent difference is that the nominative contrasts with the accusative in an accusative pattern, whereas the absolutive is in opposition to the ergative. However, the terminology of nominative and/or absolutive is confusing in languages in which both accusative and ergative patterns occur because two different names can designate an identical form-function unit (Creissels 2009: 448), namely, the S-argument. Moreover, in semantic alignment, only non-agentive S-arguments are in the nominative case.