By Remco J. Wiegerink
This e-book has its roots in an concept first formulated via Barrie Gilbert in 1975. He confirmed how bipolar analog circuits can discover nonlinear and computational features. This prolonged the analog paintings from linear to nonlinear functions, consequently the identify trans linear circuits. not just did this new precept allow marvellous sign processing features to be appropriately applied, but additionally the circuits have been basic and useful. The perennial difficulties of analog Ie layout, particularly temperature sensitivity, processing unfold, equipment nonlinearity and paracitic capacitance have been solved to a wide quantity. utilizing the trans linear precept in circuit layout calls for altering your perspective in methods. First, the grossly nonlinear attribute of transistors is considered as an asset instead of as a dangerous estate. moment, now not are the signs represented via voltages, yet via currents. in reality, the attendant voltage alterations are distorted yet, as they're very small, they're purely of secondary curiosity. knowing and studying a given trans linear circuit in all fairness simple. yet what concerning the speak scenario: feel you are given a few nonlinear or computational functionality to enforce? how to define an appropriate translinear circuit attention? the overall challenge of analog circuit synthesis is a tough one and is receiving a lot cognizance these days. a few years in the past, I had the chance to enquire equipment for designing bipolar trans linear circuits. It became out that translinear networks have a few precise topological houses. utilizing those houses it was once attainable to set up heuristic synthesis procedures.
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Additional resources for Analysis and Synthesis of MOS Translinear Circuits
The circuit realizes a simple current-squaring jUnction: 2 lin . lout = 2lbias+g=--1 b/Os 34 TL graphs fig. 3-2 The simplest possible non-planar TL graph. It contains 9 branches, 6 nodes and 4 loops. In ref. , the following inequalities were derived that are additionally valid for 1L graphs: b ~ 2(1+1) (3-2) b S; 2(n-2) (3-3) Because of the fact that a TL graph must contain at least one loop it follows from (3-2) that the number of branches is at least 4. It is interesting to know the number of undirected TL graphs containing a given number of loops.
Fig. 3-17 shows a circuit implementation based on an up-down loop topology. --4 l mm . :::~ , , -,~ L __ fig. 3-/7 The vector-sum circuit from fig. 3-/4 implemented in an up-down topology. Analysis of MOS translinear circuits 53 The circuit of fig. 3-14 and the circuit of fig. 3-17 were compared by means of SPICE simulations. Sine-wave signals were applied to the inputs Ix and ly with a 90° phase shift. The resulting output current should be constant because sin2(x)+cos 2(x)=1. Fig. 3-18 shows the simulation results for input current amplitudes of 5 IlA and 50 1lA.
2] B. Gilbert, "Translinear circuits: a proposed classification", Electron. , Vol. , p. 136.  E. F. Wassenaar, "A versatile CMOS linear trans conductor! square-law function circuit", IEEEJ. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. SC-22, pp. 366- 377, 1987.  H. Wallinga and K. Bult, "Design and analysis of CMOS analog signal processing circuits by means of a graphical MOST model", IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, Vol. SC-24, pp. 672-680, 1989.  A. Vladimirescu and S. Liu, The simulation of MOS integrated circuits using PSPICE2, Memorandum No.