By D M Brink; G R Satchler
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L. ), Electromagnetically Enriched Isotopes and Mass Spectrometry, Butterworths S e i. , London, 1965. F. A. W h it e , Mass Spectrometry in Science and Technology, J. W ile y , 1968. R. W. L e v in , Conversion and enrichment in the nuclear fuel cycle, in D. M. Elliot and L E. S. Villani, Uranium Enrichment, Springer Verlag, 1979. M. B e n e d ic t , T. P ig f o r d , and H. W. , McGraw-Hill, New York, 1981. FAO and IAEA, Stable Isotopes in Plant Nutrition, Soil Fertility, and Environmental Studies, IAEA, Vienna, 1991.
However, it is known that "reflux” is obtained by oxidation and reduction of U4+ and U 0 22+ . A demonstration plant with a capacity of 2 kSWU/y is in operation at Hyuga. A method of separation, involving passage of a mixture of UF6 and helium or hydrogen at very high velocities through a nozzle, as seen in Fig. 11, has been developed by E. W. Becker in Germany and in South Africa. The technique is sometimes referred to as "static" or "stationary-walled" gas centrifugation. e. about three times better than in the gaseous diffusion process, and offers great possibilities for further improvements.
Mass defect It was noted in Chapter 1 that the masses of nuclei (in u) are close to the mass number A. Using the mass of carbon-12 as the basis (^ C s 12 u), the hydrogen atom and the neutron do not have exactly unit masses. e. 014 102 u. 5 MeV, where MeV is a million electron volts. e. 224 MeV. Indeed, the emission of this amount of energy (in the form of γ -rays) is observed when a proton captures a low energy neutron to form 2H. As a matter of fact, in this particular case, the energy liberated in the formation of deuterium has been used in the reverse calculation to obtain the mass of the neutron since it is not possible to determine directly the mass of the free neutron.