By Professor Dr. Hermann Remmert (auth.)
A huge variety of entire guides has been dedicated to the Antarctic, to its plant and animal lifestyles. it truly is as a result particularly effortless to familiarize oneself with the present country of Antarctic examine. not anything similar is accessible for the Arctic. The heterogeneity and richness of the northern polar areas appear to have discouraged any test at a synthethic strategy. This e-book has developed from an try and summarize the result of 15 years of ecological and physiological examine paintings within the Arctic - totally on Spitsbergen. the need of evaluating our effects and the ecological stipulations of Spitsbergen with different arctic areas grew right into a full-sized booklet on arctic animal ecology. it isn't intended as an exhaustive survey ofthe proper literature. as an alternative i've got attempted to teach how heavily a few of the fields of analysis are interwoven, what number questions could be solved if in basic terms observe is taken of fellow scientists and their effects, and what sort of arctic animals have in universal. This e-book do not need been attainable with out the helpfulness of many colleagues. mainly I should still prefer to point out Professor Ronning and Professor Solem of Trondheim college (Norway), Professor Arnthor Gardasson of Reykjavik college (Iceland), Dr. NettIeship, Dr. Oliver and Dr. Ryder of Canada and Professor West of Fairbanks college (Alaska, USA).
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22) made at a variety of points in the Arctic have confirmed what was at first merely a theoretical postulate. It often comes as a surprise that the figures for daily incoming energy during the arctic summer are just as high as those for places near to the equator. In the one case, however, the radiation is evenly distributed over the 24 hours, whereas in the other (near the equator) it is concentrated into half of this time (Fig. 23). Accordingly, temperatures rise to a considerable height in equatorial regions but are very even in the Arctic.
C Snowy lair of the ringed seal. 44) Polar bear den. (Compiled after various authors) Ecological Factors in the Arctic 44 w CUI ... I SECTION C ' D Fig. 39d (Legend ee p. 43) it is not known whether the normal temperature of the snow at the same depth might not be the same as in the lairs, which would seem to be quite feasible. It appears that alterations and extensions are made throughout the winter (Harington, 1968), and at all times there is good ventilation shaft (Fig. 39d). Ringed seals often spend the winter in similar quarters.
29. Left distribution of systematic groups in Pitfall traps on Spitsbergen (S), on Dovre-Fjell in southern Norway (D) and in the Alps (A). D Diptera; H parasitic Hymenoptera; A Aranea; R remaining groups. Right contribution of the remaining groups (R in lefthand portion of figure) to the total bIOmass or the catches In tormahn traps on SpItsbergen, in southern Norway and in the Alps. The remaining groups are almost negligible on Spitsbergen, but in the Alps they account for 5% of the individuals and make up 40% of the biomass.