By Daniel Cohen
During this publication, Daniel Cohen explores the connections among arguments and metaphors such a lot stated in philosophy, simply because philosophical discourse is either completely metaphorical and replete with argumentation. The metaphors we use for arguments, in addition to the methods we use metaphors as arguments and in arguments, presents the foundation for a tripartite theoretical framework for realizing and comparing arguments. There are logical, rhetorical, and dialectical dimensions to arguments, every one delivering norms for behavior, vocabulary for assessment, and standards for fulfillment. In flip, the pointed out roles for arguments ordinarily discourse will be utilized to metaphors, supporting to provide an explanation for what they suggest and the way they paintings. Cohen covers the character of arguments, their modes and constructions, and the rules in their evaluate. He additionally addresses the character of metaphors, their position in language and proposal, and their connections to arguments, deciding on and reconciling arguments' and metaphors' respective roles in philosophy.
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Additional info for Arguments and Metaphors in Philosophy
The acceptability of a speech act can always be increased, which explains why "preaching to the converted" is not necessarily an idle exercise. Another happy consequence of this conception of arguments is that it helps explain why explanations might qualify as arguments. This seems meet since explanations constitute a large part of many arguments. Explanation can indeed serve as a kind of justification, and justification generally is the province of argument. This points to a way to articulate the connection between interpretation and argumentation that was suggested earlier: in order to understand some texts, a certain kind of sympathetic reading can be necessary.
For relevant discussions see Kosman 1986, A. Rorty 1986, Lloyd 1993, and Gordon unpublished. For example, the whole series of arguments for skepticism in the Meditations, culminating in the Evil Demon, is a sustained dialogic engagement with skeptics. To Philosophize is to Argue 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 33 The distinction between Truth and truths is drawn in the introductory essay in Rorty 1982, and returned to frequently. Gilbert 1997 p. 13. This issue is returned to in the final chapter.
6. Nozick, loco cit. This statement has been attributed, on electronic bulletin boards without citation, to the rhetorician Sally Gearheart. Maryann Ayim 1988, 1991, and elsewhere, has also raised the question of the metaphors we use to talk about our philosophical discourse and educational practices. See Govier 1999, esp. ch. 4, for a positive assessment of the adversarial element in arguments. This important observation was first suggested as being relevant here by my colleague Jill Gordon. See Govier 1988 for a more extended treatment of the issue.