By Mario Mikulincer PhD, Phillip R. Shaver PhD
This authoritative paintings presents a scientific, finished evaluation of thought and examine on grownup attachment. The authors—who were on the vanguard of this quickly transforming into box because the recommendations of "adult attachment" and "attachment sort" have been first developed—trace how Bowlby and Ainsworth's unique constructs have developed during the examine of teenagers and adults. They overview extant measures and learn how attachment concept has been used to enhance medical figuring out of feelings, social cognition, shut relationships, psychopathology, and psychotherapy.
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Extra resources for Attachment in Adulthood: Structure, Dynamics, and Change
Although behavioral systems presumably operate mainly at a subcortical level and in a somewhat reflexive, mechanistic manner, their capacity to attain what Bowlby called set-goals depends on experience with the external world. ” Over time, after operating repeatedly in a particular relational (usually family) environment, a person’s behavioral systems become uniquely tailored to specific relationship partners. A child learns to adjust his or her behavioral systems based on reliable expectations about possible access routes and barriers to goal attainment.
20 THE ATTACHMENT BEHAVIORAL SYSTEM (1988) proposed that romantic bonds in adulthood are conceptually parallel to infants’ emotional bonds with their primary caregivers. In their words, “For every documented feature of attachment there is a parallel feature of love, and for most documented features of love there is either a documented or a plausible infant parallel” (p. 73). Love in both infancy and adulthood includes eye contact, holding, touching, caressing, smiling, crying, and clinging; a desire to be comforted by the relationship partner (parent, romantic lover, or spouse) when distressed; the experience of anger, anxiety, and sorrow following separation or loss; and the experience of happiness and joy upon reunion.
Importantly, even within a particular relationship—say, between two sisters—there can be both attachment interactions in which one sister (and not always the same one) is needy and the other is temporarily “stronger and wiser,” and other, affiliative interactions in which the two consider themselves to be equal. The same goes for romantic or marital partners. ” The existence of this bond may not always be evident; when neither partner is threatened, demoralized, or in need, the two may seem quite autonomous, and their interactions may be more affiliative, exploratory, or sexual than attachment-oriented.