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By Streater R. F. (Ed)

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Also, the velocities of the transmitter and receiver at the transmission and reception epochs are denoted by V and v, respectively; this notation is introduced in eqs (1-2) where the Doppler effect was stated. In this Appendix we derive the Doppler formula including gravitational frequency shifts. The one-way propagation of a signal from transmitter to receiver gives tR = K + tT + -C1I r R ( t R ) - rT(tT)I 3 (Del) where K represents a possible systematic error or bias in the coordinate time of the receiver clock.

L ) , expand and neglect squares of the small quantities Ar and At. Then the equations take the followiiig form for j = 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . 3), the quantity c(t(2)- t j ) is the ith estimate of the pseudorange from the receiver to the j t h satellite. 3) are a system of linear inhoinogeneous equations which can be solved by matrix inversion. Numerical examples of the solution are discussed in the main text. The matrix of coefficients of the unknowns Ar and At will usually be nonsingular, unless the configuration of satellites is so unfavorable that eqs ( B .

3. We simply assume that the appropriate places in the code have been identified by the receiver. The four propagation delay equations are then or (rc + v C ( t R j + b c - t c ) - rj] 2 = c2(tRj +bc -tC)2. 5) The unknown position r c and bias b c may be found from these four equations as follows. As in Appendix B, we assume we can write the unknown quantities in terms of good estimates, plus small corrections. Thus we write where the quantities rg), b g ) represent trial estimates for the position vector and clock bias, and Ar, At are small quantities.

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