By Peter Gärdenfors
In The Geometry of Meaning, Peter Gärdenfors proposes a idea of semantics that bridges cognitive technological know-how and linguistics and exhibits how theories of cognitive methods, specifically idea formation, will be exploited in a common semantic version. He argues that our minds manage the knowledge interested in communicative acts in a structure that may be modeled in geometric or topological phrases -- in what he phrases conceptual spaces, extending the speculation he offered in an previous booklet by means of that identify. Many semantic theories give some thought to the meanings of phrases as quite solid and self sustaining of the communicative context. Gärdenfors focuses as an alternative on how quite a few kinds of conversation identify a approach of meanings that turns into shared among interlocutors. He argues that those "meetings of brain" depend upon the underlying geometric buildings, and that those constructions facilitate language studying. Turning to lexical semantics, Gärdenfors argues unified concept of observe which means may be built through the use of conceptual areas. He exhibits that the which means of alternative note sessions should be given a cognitive grounding, and gives semantic analyses of nouns, adjectives, verbs, and prepositions. He additionally provides versions of how the meanings of phrases are composed to shape new meanings and of the fundamental semantic function of sentences. ultimately, he considers the long run implications of his concept for robotic semantics and the Semantic Web.
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Extra resources for The Geometry of Meaning: Semantics Based on Conceptual Spaces
5 Semantics as Meetings of Minds All speech, written or spoken, is in a dead language until it finds a willing and prepared hearer. 1 Meanings Ain’t in the Head A fundamental drawback of the theory of image schemas is that the schemas are supposed to belong to individual minds. The theory of cognitive semantics does not account for how image schemas can be compared between individuals. In other words, mainstream cognitive semantics does not provide a viable account of the social criterion. It seems to be implicitly assumed that all individuals within a language community have the same schemas.
Langacker (1987, p. 152) calls the set of domains that are used to characterize a concept the domain matrix. The set of domains for a concept may not be closed but can be expanded as more knowledge is accrued. Concepts have multiple cognitive functions: they help in organizing and categorizing our perceptions, they are involved in reasoning, and they form the basis for the meanings of words. In this book, I focus on the role of concepts in semantics. 3 The Convexity Requirement Geometry . . may be called the general science of classification.
In this sense image schemas are topological: They simply do not include some of the information that might be in an image. The most condensed account comes from Gibbs and Colston (1995, p. ” Unlike Lakoff and Langacker, who focus on the spatial structure of image schemas, this definition puts the dynamics of the representations in focus. As we shall see, this aspect is necessary to account for the semantics of verbs. 3 Parallels between Language Understanding and Visual Processes After presenting image schemas as semantic tools, I next point out some parallels between semantics, on the one hand, and ordinary visual processes and visualization, on the other.