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By A.C. Grayling

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The realist's model is the way the senses of the constants are fixed in standard logic; realism generalises from the nature of sense-fixing procedures here to a method for specifying the sense of every sentence in a language. This provides a useful way of contrasting antirealism with realism, for, as is by now well known, Dummett's opposition to realism is to a 26 The Refutation of Scepticism large extent inspired by intuitionism in logic and mathematics. q is assertible if and only if p is assertible and q is assertible; pvq is assertible if and only if at least one of them is assertible; and so on.

Naming, Necessity and Natural Kinds, Ithaca 1977. 2. The Naturalistic Reply to Scepticism 37 the foregoing way is wholly intuitive. We are inclined to say that in ordinary perceptual situations, our judgments, and the statements we make in reporting them (saving a lapsus linguae), can only be called in question either by someone who does not, or chooses not to, understand the language, or by the philosophical sceptic. And now we can notice two things: in the former case, that is, of someone who does not understand the language, or who chooses not to accept the 'language game', we explain what is going on - what his doubt comes down to - by talking in terms of the sense of the discourse at issue.

Scepticism about any particular empirical judgment is thus defeated by appeal to the fact that the judgment is made in terms of the scheme; what it means to say that a judgment is unwarranted is that the scheme does not support it, but this is something which it is only possible to say because it is also possible to say when, relative to the scheme, a judgment is warranted. But this does not defeat scepticism, although it defeats scepticism at the level at which it has traditionally been pitched.

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