By Patrick Joyce
The liberal governance of the nineteenth-century country and town trusted the “rule of freedom.” As a kind of rule it depended on the construction of yes forms of electorate and styles of social existence, which in flip trusted reworking either the fabric kind of town (its structure, structure, infrastructure) and the methods it was once inhabited and imagined by means of its leaders, voters and custodians.
Focusing often on London and Manchester, yet in regards additionally to Glasgow, Dublin, Paris, Vienna, colonial India, or even modern l. a., Patrick Joyce creatively and initially develops Foucauldian methods to historiography to mirror at the nature of recent liberal society. His attention of such “artifacts” as maps and censuses, sewers and markets, public libraries and parks, and of civic governments and town making plans, are intertwined with theoretical interpretations to check either the impersonal, frequently invisible kinds of social course and keep an eye on equipped into the infrastructure of contemporary existence and the ways that those mechanisms form cultural and social existence and engender well known resistance.
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Extra info for The Rule of Freedom: Liberalism and the Modern City
Later than in Europe, particularly in the 1870s and 1880s in the aftermath of the Civil War, there developed very similar epistemological operations on state territory as in Europe. Extending beyond the census, but especially apparent there, were the twin processes of what Hannah calls 'abstraction' and 'assortment'. These processes were generalised across nation-states, and were apparent in Britain also, so that it is useful to dwell on the US example in a little more detail. 49 Typically, this is provided by the map, so that the map and census statistics are closely related, though one might also think of the creation of observational fields in terms of 'grids of specifications' , or systems according to which Copynghted material MAPS, NUMBERS AND THE C ITY 33 ' different kinds of governmental objects are divided, contrasted and related'.
Beyond Britain, the most systematic account of govemmentality and statistics is that of Matthew G. Hannah on the USA48 While not underestimating state power, he demonstrates a similar understanding of the state as the outcome as well as the author of statistical knowledge, and a similar recognition of the performance of power in terms of an ethics of governance within those who would seek to govern, especially in thJs case the director of the US census, Francis ~ Walker. Hannah's account concerns the census in particular.
This is evident in the history of the contour. In the ei,g hteenth century and the early nineteenth century elaborate hatching techniques were developed for representing relief, especially for miJitary purposes. The OS rapidly brought the hill sketching upon which these techniques were based under the sovereignty of the contour. The older techniques were said to be based on ' taste, imagination, and fancy'. e to be based solely on the contour and not on the eye and the imagination. By the late 1840s the contour had made its introduction in the Suivey.